Linguists often use the tree metaphor to show the historical relationships between languages and how they relate to one another. In a language history course, these trees would most of the time look very simple and informative, but they lack imagination. Minna Sundberg, creator of the webcomic Stand Still. Stay Silent, thinks that there is no reason why linguistics should be so visually uninspiring and unimaginative. So, she remapped the languages into one beautiful and magnificent tree that is quite a sight to feast your eyes on.Continue reading “Magnificent Linguistic Family Tree Shows How all Languages are Related.”
If it weren’t for farmers and soft food, we wouldn’t be able to utter the f-word, or any word that has the sound “f” or “v” for that matter. A new study revealed that the switch to processed food after the spread of agriculture gave humans an overbite and eventually two labiodental sounds that exist in more than half of the world languages.Continue reading “Ancient switch to soft food gave us an overbite—and the ability to pronounce ‘f’s and ‘v’s”
As of today, the world has 7111 languages according to Ethnologue. A staggering third of these languages are endangered and only spoken by very few people, 1000 speakers at best. what’s even more serious is that more than 50% of the world’s population is covered by 23 major languages.Continue reading “The 10 Oldest Languages That Are Still Spoken Today.”
The Alphabet of the English language and most of the European languages
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Did Proto-Indo-European, or any reconstructed language for that matter, really exist? Of course it did, linguists say so! But do you know how were they able to know that? Humm! No worries, this is what this article is all about.Continue reading “Here is How Linguists Know That Extinct Languages Existed.”
I find it hysterical when people incorrectly assume the origins of words. What’s even more hysterical is when you find out that you are one of them. That’s what happened to me when I came across the etymology of the words male, female, man, and woman. Sometimes we manipulate the words and make adjustments to them so they fit our assumption. Wait until you read about the etymology of the words that I’ve just mentioned. This phenomenon is fairly common and it actually has its own name: folk etymology. Extreme cases of this include the feminist movement that demands that the word history be renamed her-story.
Let’s see what else we’ve got! The word Goodbye was actually “Godbye”, contraction of the phrase “God be with ye“. but people incorrectly assumed that Goodbye is just another greeting phrase like “good morning” or “good night” and so they changed it, tacitly of course, to goodbye, mindless of the fact that bye has no meaning of its own.
Now let’s do away with the folk etymology of the words man vs woman and male vs female. To many, the word man carries stigma; you shouldn’t use man to refer to human, that’s sexist. To others, both words should be dismissed because even human has man in it. Same thing for mankind and humankind. The nonsense doesn’t stop here. They went so far as to complain why does woman have ‘man’ in it and female has the word ‘male’ in it? But seriously…why?
Man derives from Proto-Germanic and it meant literally “person”, that is, it could refer to both man and woman. Woman, on the other hand, derives from Wif or wifman. What was used to refer to man with its sense of today is wer or werman. That this hits the right spot is confirmed by the survival of wer in werewolf (literally man-wolf).
Wifmen, in the course of language development, lost the “f” and became wimman until it reached us as woman. werman, didn’t just lose the “r”, like what happened with the “f” in wifmen. Following the Norman conquest, the whole “wer” was gone, and it became man, and it gradually narrowed down to refer to male men only.
According to Wikipedia:
“The spelling of woman in English has progressed over the past millennium from wīfmann to wīmmann to wumman, and finally, the modern spelling woman. In Old English,wīfmann meant “female human”, whereas wēr meant “male human”. Mann or monn had a gender-neutral meaning of “human”, corresponding to Modern English “person” or “someone”; however, subsequent to the Norman Conquest, man began to be used more in reference to “male human”, and by the late 13th century had begun to eclipse usage of the older term wēr. The medial labial consonants “f” and “m” in wīfmann coalesced into the modern form “woman”, while the initial element, which meant “female”, underwent semantic narrowing to the sense of a married woman (“wife”). It is a popular misconception that the term “woman” is etymologically connected with “womb”, which is from a separate Old English word, wambe meaning “stomach” (of male or female).”
Man kept its definition as “person” until the 20th century when people assumed that it excluded women – understandably, since many men were using it in that way – so it’s fallen out of use for the most part, keeping the definition it has today. This was natural given the pervasive sexism at the time, where male was viewed as the ‘default’ gender.
Let’s now settle down to handle “human” and “male”. “Human” derives from the Latin humanus and has nothing to do with the word “man”. “Male” is from Latin masculus (“male”), which was then shortened to masle in Old French, Old french dropped the “s” and it finally became “male”. “Female” is also from French, but from femelle (“woman”), from the Latin diminutive of femina; it never had any connection, etymologically speaking, to “male”.
Still, although there are no etymological relationships between these words and what people purport them to indicate, it’s amazing how our minds find patterns, that may not exist, and link them to what’s going on in the world. Oscar Tay from Quora writes that “sometimes speakers fail to see a word’s origin and end up with etymological flotsam. “Cranberry” is an example of this: it comes from the Low German kraanbere, literally “crane-berry”. When English borrowed it, speakers correctly recognized that bere meant “berry”, but not that kraan meant “crane”, so they anglicized kraan to “cran” and ended up with “cranberry”, where “cran” doesn’t mean anything but is needed to make the word work.” See Tay’s original answer [here]. Word bits that have no meaning of themselves like *-bye in “goodbye” and *cran– in “cranberry” are called, ironically enough, “cranberry morphemes“.
At any rate, although language is full of sexism (flowing both ways), male, female, man, and woman are innocent little words made victims by mindless folk etymology. Next time you come across people who are still confused about this matter, educate them and help them clear the confusion.
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Among the languages that enjoy a significant prestige and history is obviously English. The greatness of English, ironically enough, was inherited not from the speakers it has today, and as the language of the Free World, but from its great history, a history of blood and sacrifice. So see how English stumbled its way to the modern world.Continue reading “The sweet adventure of the English language.”
It is well-established that Latin ceased to exist centuries ago, or in other words, Latin died. But, is Latin really dead? What if I told you that Latin is still alive and kicking! Would you believe that? Well, you might not. So, please read on!Continue reading “Here is why Latin is still spoken by more than half a billion people.”